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Scientific Research Journal

Scirj Volume II, Issue IV, April 2014 Edition
ISSN: 2201-2796


Publication starts: 25th April 2014
Full Paper available from: 25th April 2014


Oil Palm Block Efficiency Indicator
Henderson William, Tjeuw Juliana, Purba Olivia, Immanuella Hana

Abstract: Growers need to be creative in identifying techniques to monitor and understand planting material variation within and between blocks. Being creative does not necessarily mean being complicated. The Block Efficiency Indicator (BEI) is a simple, reliable and repeatable concept that fills a management gap allowing growers to identify which of five variables are influencing block-planting material efficiency, positively or negatively. BEI is a percentage calculation compiled by dividing actual values by theoretical values for planting density, yield, bunch weight, frond production, and block sex ratio. When actual values equal theoretical values, BEI is 100 and block-planting material is achieving its expected commercial potential. A reduction in average frond rate from 17 to 15 fronds/yr for example produces a BEI of 77.9, while a reduction in block sex ratio from 0.7 to 0.6 produces a BEI of 73.5, equivalent to a loss of 16 and 19 palms/ha respectively. When the effects were combined, BEI is 57.2, equivalent to a loss of 33 palms/ha. The Block Performance Indicator helps growers to understand cause and effect, allowing them to develop strategies to maximise production and efficiency.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 1-4


Efficacy of Moringa and Fertiplus on Phosphorus Availability and Yield of Garden Egg (Solanum aethiopicum) in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria
Ali A., M.A. Kekong, E. E. Attoe, R. Sha-ato

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2009 and 2010 in Southern Guinea savanna (Makurdi) and Rainforest belts (Obubra) of Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with moringa leaf and fertiplus manures on phosphorus availability and yield of Garden egg. A factorial combination of two varieties of Garden egg (Solanum aethiopicumm Gilo and Solanum aethiopicum –kumba) and two organic manure sources (Moringa leaf and Fertiplus) were applied at the rates of 0,5,10 and 20 t ha-1 moringa leaf and 1, 2 and 3 t ha-1 fertiplus. These 14 treatments combinations were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replications. All rates of the manures increased available soil P levels from low to medium 30 days after incorporation and up to 140 days in both locations although the values were higher in Makurdi than Obubra. All the manure rates significantly (P<0.05) increased the yield and yield components of the garden egg varieties over the control. Moringa leaf at 20 t ha-1 produced the highest fruit yield in both years and locations (7.22 and 6.68 t ha-1 in 2009 and 10.37 t ha-1 and 9.17 t ha-1 in 2010 for Makurdi and Obubra respectively). The crop yield was significantly (t<0.05) higher in Makurdi than Obubra in both years and the yield in 2010 was significantly (t<0.05) higher than 2009 in both locations. Moringa leaf biomass (20 t ha-1) therefore is a good soil amendment for the release of available P and sustainable production of Garden egg in the Nigeria Guinea savanna and Rainforest belts.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 5-14


Antibacterial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant activities of Madhuca indica
Israt Jahan Bulbul, Yesmin Begum

Abstract: The research work was conducted on the evaluation of antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of leaf and bark of Madhuca indica (Family- Sapotaceae). Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial screening using kanamycin as standard. Zone of inhibition was observed in disc diffusion against four gram-positive and eight gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. The leaf and bark extracts showed average zone of inhibition ranged from 7-10 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed 10 mm against Bacillus megaterium, Salmonella paratyphi, Vibrio parahemolyticus for barks and Vibrio mimicus for leaves. The cytotoxic activities of crude extracts were determined using Brine shrimp lethality using Vincristine sulfate as standard with LC50 of 8.84µg/ml hence the crude extracts of leaves and barks showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 of 17.09µg/ml and 45.96 µg/ml respectively. Antioxidant activity test of the crude extracts was assessed by means of DPPH free radical scavenging method where ascorbic acid was used as standard with IC50 value 45.738µg/ml. Leaves and barks of Madhuca indica showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value 61.832 µg/ml & 66.342 µg/ml respectively. The phenolic content was found in leaf 62.43mg of GAE / gm of extractives and the amount of phenolic content was 61.08mg of GAE / gm of extractives for bark which correlated with good antioxidant potentiality.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 15-20


A new record for the freshwater algae of Turkey
Arzu Morkoyunlu Yuce, Omer Osman Ertan

Abstract: Volvox spermatoshaera Powers (Chlorophyta) was recorded for the first time in the freshwater algal flora of Turkey
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 21-22


The Demonstration of Larval Polytene Chromosomes of Anopheles Gambiae
AJU-AMEH

Abstract: Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were found in large numbers in the open ground pools at Rayfield, Jos and a few from along the stream edges formed by some pool. Within the pool mixed populations of both culicine and Anopheline larvae were found. A total of four hundred and ninety-seven Anopheline larvae were brought into the insectary from the wild. Four hundred and forty-four were reared to adult stage successfully. Fifty were fixed for dissection and three died. Laboratory colonization of the Anopheles gambie failed due to, among other factors, that they could not blood feed. Consequently only the salivary gland polytene chromosome squashes of wild caught larvae were examined. Dissections of the salivary gland of the Anopheles yielded chromosomes which spread successfully as expected. A Least Significance Difference test (LSD) showed a highly significant interaction between seasons and sites.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 23-29


Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Leaves of Ceiba pentandra, Manihot esculentus and Abelmoschus esculentus in Southwestern Nigeria
Raimi Monsurat M., Oyekanmi Adeyinka M., Farombi Abolaji G.

Abstract: The leaves of Ceiba pentandra (Java), Manihot esculentus (Cassava) and Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) are consumed as vegetables in Southwestern Nigeria. The proximate and phytochemical composition of these leaves were investigated using standard procedures. Powdered dried leaves of Java, Cassava and Okra were analysed for ash, moisture, fat, fibre, protein, carbohydrate, tannins, flavonoids, phenols and ascorbic acid composition. The percentage composition result values for ash, moisture, fat, fibre, protein and carbohydrate in the leaves ranged from 15.00% - 6.30%, 0.15% - 4.85%, 9.60% - 8.40%, 25.44% - 17.55%, 21.16% - 8.65% and 41.25% - 32.65% respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and phenols composition values ranges were 8.98% - 0.81%, 4.71% - 0.12% and 0.07% - 0.03% respectively while ascorbic acid content ranged from 3.16mg/100g to 2.84mg/100g. The result values obtained have shown that these leaves have good nutritive and therapeutic values and there is need for increased inclusion of these leaves as vegetables in everyday meal.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 30-34


Nutritional Composition of Seed and Physicochemical Properties of Seed Oil of Vitellaria paradoxa
Raimi Monsurat M., Adegoke Bosede M., Afolabi Olumide

Abstract: This study involved the investigation of the nutritional composition of Vitellaria paradoxa seed by determining its proximate, vitamin and mineral content, and physicochemical properties of seed oil of Vitellaria paradoxa. The results of the proximate composition analysis showed that the seed contained 2.842% moisture, 4.183% ash, 49.155% fat, 9.30% protein, 12.678% fibre and 21.842% carbohydrate and its energy content was 2348.149kJ/100g. The mineral composition analysis showed that the seed contained 61.70ppm K, 52.00ppm Fe, 30.20ppm Ca, 6.24 ppm Mg, 5.10ppm Na, 0.80ppm Cu, 0.72 ppm Zn, 0.30 ppm Mn, 0.04 ppm Ni, 0.02 ppm Pb,0.0l ppm Cd, and 0.01 ppm Co while its vitamins A and C contents were 15012.09 µg/mg and 189.53 mg/g respectively. The result obtained for physicochemical properties of the seed oil showed 0.895g/cm3 specific gravity, 1.464 refractive index, 4.297mg/g acid value, 68.018mg/g iodine value, 224.4mg/g saponification value and 2.160 mg/g free fatty acid. The results obtained in this study for the nutritional (proximate, mineral and vitamin) composition of V. paradoxa seed show that the seed has a high nutritional and energy values, and would be useful raw materials for industries, and animal feed formulations. The seed oil can be described as having good nutritional quality and high commercial value. It is edible and would find applications in food, soap and cosmetics manufacturing besides domestic cooking purposes.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 35-39


Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Groundwater in Michika Town and Environs Northeastern Nigeria
A.G. Mohammed, G.P. Singh, A. Olasehinde, A. D. Saidu

Abstract: An attempt to understand the water quality of Michika towns and Environs was carried out under the water quality index (WQI). Physico-chemical parameters of 15 water samples collected from both Hand-dug wells and Boreholes were determined using standard procedures. The values of WQI have been affected by concentration of dissolved Ca++, Fe++, and Cl- in the water samples. The value ranges from 54.89 – 99.02 in the hand dug wells which indicate poor to very poor quality except Ghuzukwi. But all the value range for borehole sources indicates a good status with WQI range of 22.99 – 26.76. The quality of water sampled from well were not suitable for human consumption without proper treatment. Model average representations of each parameter for the area are also presented.
Read Full Paper Reference this paper Page 40-48



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