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Scirj, Volume XI [2024]
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Scirj Volume XI, Issue VI, June 2023 Edition
ISSN: 2201-2796

Review on Foot and mouth Disease vaccine immunogenicity and Vaccination Failure

Demessa Negessu, Alemu Kebede

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is a contagious virus affecting cloven-hoofed animals and is caused by the FMD virus, which has seven serotypes. The serotype, genotype, and topotype differences of the virus make it a challenge to control the disease. Therefore, vaccination was the most favorable of the other controlling mechanisms. In this review, we analyze different FMD vaccines in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Among all deoxyribonucleic acid vaccines, vaccines were the most useful and had the fewest disadvantages due to their best efficacy, reduced vaccine dose, and low toxicity. However, vaccine failure factors are the greatest challenges during or after vaccination to control the virus for all vaccine types. Before and during vaccination, vaccine handling, site vaccine administration, and temperature were great challenges. Mainly, temperature affects the protein particles of the virus that cause direct reactions with the immune system. To summarize them, vaccine failures occur due to mismatching of the vaccine strain and the wild one, inhibition activity of maternal antibodies from colostrum, and parasite infestation (shifting the balance of the immune system from a TH1 to a TH2 type, whereas several vaccine-induced immunizations rely on the TH1 responses). Additionally, vaccine efficacy and vaccination coverage are the two fundamental factors in generating the preferred level of herd immunity against FMD in the field, which causes vaccine failure. Furthermore, the concentration of protein particles has a direct correlation with antibody production. In general, this review sums up the vaccine failure and different FMD vaccine immunogenicities in short form.

Reference this Paper: Review on Foot and mouth Disease vaccine immunogenicity and Vaccination Failure by Demessa Negessu, Alemu Kebede published at: "Scientific Research Journal (Scirj), Volume XI, Issue VI, June 2023 Edition, Page 1-7 ".

Search Terms: Foot and mouth disease, Vaccine failure and vaccine immunogenicity

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